Table 1.

Nonmotor phenotypes in preclinical PD models

Preclinical PD modelNonmotor phenotype
GI dysfunctionDecreased sleep latencyOlfactory deficitsAnxiety/depressive behaviorCognitive impairmentAltered pain response/nociception
Intrastriatal 6-OHDANot describedNot describedNo (Tadaiesky et al., 2008)Yes (Branchi et al., 2008; Tadaiesky et al., 2008)Yes (Ferro et al., 2005; Tadaiesky et al., 2008)Yes (Tassorelli et al., 2007; Chudler and Lu, 2008)
MPTP (systemic)Yes (Anderson et al., 2007)Yes (Monaca et al., 2004; Barraud et al., 2009)Yes (Prediger et al., 2009)Yes (Vucković et al., 2008)Yes (Reksidler et al., 2007; Prediger et al., 2009)Yes (Rosland et al., 1992)
Rotenone (systemic)Yes (Drolet et al., 2009; Greene et al., 2009)Not describedNot describedNot describedNot describedNot described
α-synuclein TG(PARK1, PARK4)Not describedNot describedYes (Fleming et al., 2008)Yes (George et al., 2008)Not describedNot described
Parkin TG (PARK2)Not describedNot describedNot describedYes (Zhu et al., 2007)Yes (Zhu et al., 2007)Not described