Table 1.

Quantitative neuron density data

Cell density (cells/mm2)Fold changep value
WTGFAP–Gdnf mice
A, GDNF transgene in glia significantly increases submucosal neuron density with minimal effect on myenteric neurons
    Small bowel submucosal acetylcholinesterase115.2 ± 4.7137.3 ± 5.81.190.004
    Colon submucosal acetylcholinesterase24.3 ± 3.341.9 ± 4.71.70.007
    Small bowel myenteric Cuprolinic104.8 ± 6.1110.7 ± 8.70.56
    Colon myenteric Cuprolinic185.2 ± 8.0236.6 ± 9.41.28<0.001
PBS-injected miceGDNF-injected mice
B, Systemic GDNF injection dramatically increases submucosal neuron density but not myenteric neuron density
    Small bowel submucosal acetylcholinesterase209.6 ± 5.7513.5 ± 20.72.44<0.001
    Colon submucosal acetylcholinesterase42.3 ± 5.6131.6 ± 18.23.10.003
    Small bowel myenteric Cuprolinic214.8 ± 41216.7 ± 490.978
    Colon myenteric Cuprolinic592 ± 83501 ± 250.356
WTGFAP–Gdnf mice
C, Excess GDNF increases NADPH-d+ neuron density but not TH+ or ChAT+ neuron density
    Small bowel myenteric NADPH-d39.7 ± 3.451.7 ± 3.31.30.017
    Small bowel myenteric TH0.12 ± 0.050.20 ± 0.070.336
    Small bowel myenteric ChAT59.2 ± 4.446.0 ± 6.40.148
    Colon myenteric NADPH-d87.4 ± 7.1128.4 ± 6.81.47<0.001
    Colon myenteric ChAT94.4 ± 17.6104.4 ± 9.60.63
PBS-injected miceGDNF-injected mice
    Small bowel myenteric NADPH-d53.7 ± 1.284.5 ± 7.21.570.006
    Colon myenteric NADPH-d313.5 ± 24266.8 ± 120.133
WTGDNF+/−
D, Decreased GDNF reduces myenteric neuron density
    Small bowel myenteric NADPH-d37.1 ± 4.920.1 ± 2.90.540.043
    Small bowel myenteric ChAT72.5 ± 4.234.5 ± 5.20.480.003
    Esophagus NADPH-d14.3 ± 1.03.6 ± 1.00.25<0.001
WTMyo–Gdnf mice
E, GDNF transgene in skeletal muscle does not affect small bowel or colon neuron density
    Small bowel myenteric Cuprolinic125.3 ± 7.3155.7 ± 18.20.197
    Small bowel myenteric NADPH-d32.3 ± 1.539.4 ± 1.50.325
    Small bowel submucosal acetylcholinesterase146.1 ± 7.8135.3 ± 5.40.319
    Colon myenteric Cuprolinic289.9 ± 14.0306.1 ± 43.11.000
    Colon submucosal acetylcholinesterase27.9 ± 3.634.6 ± 1.80.166
WTMyo–Gdnf mice
F, Increased GDNF dramatically increases esophageal neuron density
    Esophagus myenteric NADPH-d7.8 ± 1.014.5 ± 0.51.850.004
PBS-injected miceGDNF-injected mice
    Esophagus myenteric NADPH-d19.5 ± 1.430.1 ± 3.51.540.031
WTGFAP–Gdnf mice
    Esophagus myenteric NADPH-d6.8 ± 1.017.9 ± 2.42.63<0.001
  • Neurons per millimeter squared (±SEM) are shown for GFAP–Gdnf, Myo-Gdnf, GDNF-injected, and Gdnf+/− mice. Because these mice are different ages and different strains, all comparisons are between animals with altered GDNF abundance and WT littermates. Fold change is the ratio of mutant or GDNF-injected mouse to WT mouse. This table is organized to follow the text. The same data are also provided in supplemental Table 1 (available at www.jneurosci.org as supplemental material), but data there are organized by mouse genotype or treatment regimen. n = 6 GFAP–Gdnf mice, 4 GDNF-injected mice, 6 Myo–Gdnf mice, and 3 Gdnf+/− mice as well as strain- and age-matched WT animals.