Table 2.

Regions showing increased activation associated with saline exhalation, voluntary cough, evoked cough, and suppressed cough

RegionSaline challengeVoluntary coughEvoked coughSuppressed cough
Peak voxel coordinateZ scorePeak voxel coordinateZ scorePeak voxel coordinateZ scorePeak voxel coordinateZ score
xyzxyzxyzxyz
Cingulate cortex04423.22
43843.0444224.39
424283.620−2384.49622224.53226285.29
−220322.9422384.35−220224.56−226224.97
0−16403.586−22323.224−20303.78
−2−14403.97−4−16304.14−2−22303.66
Superior frontal gyrus612583.91−226225.29
Middle frontal gyrus4412504.04
4028343.793656124.054422443.40
−3444244.05−3248223.59−3628343.34
Pre-SMA634423.50
−226442.86
SMA4−10583.0142624.886−10603.0948523.37
−68602.79−22604.07−8−10683.3602522.62
Premotor cortex542423.54562405.16
Sensorimotor cortex26−28624.0222−30604.13
−22−34644.27−20−34604.03
50−8543.2056−2404.62
−50−8463.68
46−10343.8336−14404.00
−46−10404.64−46−12423.86−46−12403.14
44−12304.2744−8304.5746−8342.78
−42−10304.80−64−20325.06−40−18323.38
Operculum58−14143.6864−4105.22−604105.15−56−2105.18
−56−4123.11−46−12184.6764−4105.1258−485.48
Posterior cingulate cortex8−32423.416−26363.49
−14−38424.28−2−22303.66
Inferior parietal lobule64−42264.5364−34244.1762−36264.6960−42424.70
−60−42404.44−62−36303.51−64−38343.87−58−40464.36
Middle temporal gyrus56−52−23.10
−50−6204.06
Anterior insula382242.86341443.40362023.51
−321063.41−341623.47
Mid-insula44403.1336−1283.124612−43.85
−401022.81−442−24.39−40−1284.46−381043.84
Posterior insula40−882.9834−2283.33
−38−1284.33−32−26103.69
Caudate162223.57
Lentiform nuclei1610−63.011612−63.06
Thalamus10−1842.9912−6102.84
−8−203.62−14−1843.48−10−6103.25
Midbrain6−32−123.544−32−143.84
−10−24−144.27−8−26−144.37
Pons8−32−283.17
−8−36−283.86
Rostral medulla0−38−522.52
−4−38−503.40
Caudal medulla0−40−662.86
−4−44−643.26
Cerebellum20−70−224.664−46−245.02
−24−64−264.54−8−62−204.58
  • The coordinates of maximally activated voxels are given in MNI space where x, y, and z coordinates represent the medial-lateral, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior distances (in millimeters) from the anterior commissure. SMA, Supplementary motor area.

  • All activations identified at cluster-level significance of p < 0.05 (corrected).