Table 3.

Regions showing increased activation associated with the contrasts of voluntary cough > saline challenge, evoked cough > saline challenge, and suppressed cough > saline challenge

RegionVoluntary cough > saline challengeEvoked cough > saline challengeSuppressed cough > saline challenge
Peak voxel coordinateZ scorePeak voxel coordinateZ scorePeak voxel coordinateZ score
xyzxyzxyz
Cingulate cortex224205.01422224.74238103.76
410343.9288324.20834204.24
44323.928−4403.96124483.65
−224204.80−222205.15−224224.90
−24384.18−410344.34−620324.29
−2−10403.88−8−12364.28
Superior frontal gyrus−1216623.25
Middle frontal gyrus12−12503.43
SMA00624.3810−4623.44108522.97
−102523.16−106542.88
Premotor cortex560423.25
−62−4342.91
Sensorimotor cortex24−28603.8022−28604.03
−20−32643.84−22−32624.27
48−10483.2360−4424.4940−10263.81
−50−6463.15−62−8364.80−40−16324.81
46−12304.3142−8304.6942−6124.13
−40−10304.97−40−14324.66−52−8185.06
Operculum56−2163.2856−10183.8260−4104.95
−48−10164.68−50−8184.92−58−2104.05
Inferior parietal lobule56−30263.58
−52−42243.56
Paracentral lobule0−42643.55
Precuneus12−30443.61
−12−38463.95
Anterior insula341243.144016−84.78
−282023.01−301243.35−3214−84.60
Mid-insula40−1083.2534−1283.38341245.24
−36−1084.72−36−1465.28−301404.51
Posterior insula34−24122.9538−26124.31380−64.60
−32−22103.13−32−26104.34−32−1284.33
Caudate141643.30
Thalamus16−2463.1414−1823.538−1623.06
−18−2043.28−14−2224.11−10−16−24.27
−8−403.208042.92
−4−442.97
Midbrain6−26−63.7312−18−84.4712−14−83.10
−4−26−23.74−10−20−64.92−10−16−63.70
6−30−124.086−28−84.25
−8−24−124.40−4−28−104.50
Pons8−30−262.908−30−243.538−38−343.37
−6−36−262.99−8−34−283.75−4−36−323.07
Rostral medulla10−38−543.106−40−523.45
−4−38−503.34−4−38−523.45
Caudal medulla8−38−604.082−38−664.28
−4−42−684.65
Cerebellum20−70−244.994−46−244.964−52−183.89
−14−44−244.01−8−50−225.0514−62−183.89
−24−64−264.57−8−62−225.46−18−72−223.58
  • The coordinates of maximally activated voxels are given in MNI space where x, y, and z coordinates represent the medial-lateral, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior distances (in millimeters) from the anterior commissure. SMA, Supplementary motor area.

  • All activations identified at cluster-level significance of p < 0.05 (corrected).