Table 1.

Example stimuli from each experiment

State-change conditionObject state-changeAction imageability
Experiment 1 (object fixed, action varied)MinimalThe squirrel will sniff the acorn And then/But first, it will lick the acorn1.875.00
SubstantialThe squirrel will crack the acorn And then/But first, it will lick the acorn5.175.68
MinimalThe chef will weigh the onion And then/But first, she will smell the onion1.515.26
SubstantialThe chef will chop the onion And then/But first, she will smell the onion5.796.00
MinimalThe musician will play the piano And then/But first, he will rave about the piano2.475.89
SubstantialThe musician will tune the piano And then/But first, he will rave about the piano4.345.13
Experiment 2 (object varied, action fixed)MinimalThe girl will stomp on the penny And then, she will look down at the penny1.745.55
SubstantialThe girl will stomp on the egg And then, she will look down at the egg6.206.28
MinimalThe girl will blow on the dice And then, she will smile about the dice1.725.87
SubstantialThe girl will blow on the dandelion And then, she will smile about the dandelion5.296.19
MinimalThe karate instructor will kick the foam pad And then, he will hold up the pad2.666.07
SubstantialThe karate instructor will kick the wooden board And then, he will hold up the board5.125.98
  • Object state-change and action imageability for each sentence of each item was rated on a 7-point scale. fMRI participants read each item in only one condition. The object state-change and action imageability ratings in the rightmost columns are specific to the first sentence of each item shown.