Table 3.

Interaction between time and changes in average response during cognitive regulation

RegionBALate versus EarlyDISTANCE versus NATURALINDULGE versus NATURAL
Early time point onlyLate time period onlyEarly time point onlyLate time period only
Z scorekxyzβ (SE)pβ (SE)pβ (SE)pβ (SE)p
DISTANCE versus NATURAL
    L Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex45/474.54119−4536−3−0.28 (0.42)NS3.33 (0.64)<0.0010.66 (0.55)NS1.46 (0.43)0.002
    L Superior frontal gyrus83.79100−93366−0.15 (0.36)NS3.11 (0.52)<0.0010.67 (0.50)NS1.91 (0.46)<0.001
    L Middle temporal gyrus214.45114−57−27−3−0.71 (0.31)0.032.08 (0.44)<0.001−0.79 (0.37)0.041.01 (0.41)0.02
    R Middle temporal gyrus21/223.958645−360−0.43 (0.28)NS2.09 (0.46)<0.001−0.31 (0.35)NS1.45 (0.35)<0.001
    R Middle temporal gyrus21/223.74766−4812−0.87 (0.37)0.021.85 (0.46)<0.001−0.48 (0.37)NS1.57 (0.38)<0.001
DISTANCE < NATURAL
    No regions significant
INDULGE > NATURAL
    R Middle temporal gyrus224.0712163−6612−0.82 (0.38)0.04−0.84 (0.36)0.031.75 (0.49)0.0021.61 (0.37)<0.001
INDULGE < NATURAL
    L Posterior cingulate cortex31−4.5750−3−15330.88 (0.23)<0.001−0.79 (0.42)0.071.13 (0.31)0.001−0.92 (0.27)0.002
INDULGE > DISTANCE
    R Postcentral gyrus54.014336−4272−0.19 (0.71)NS−1.66 (0.90)0.07−0.82 (0.86)NS1.65 (0.67)0.02
INDULGE < DISTANCE
    L Inferior parietal lobule403.6245−51−6051−0.34 (0.51)NS2.48 (0.74)0.0021.20 (0.59)0.050.52 (0.63)NS
  • Note: Clusters are reported at p < 0.05, whole-brain cluster corrected unless otherwise noted.

  • *p = 0.05, SVC, within an anatomically defined mask including vmPFC, right dlPFC, and left dlPFC.