Table 4.

Interaction between time and changes in correlates of bid during cognitive regulation

RegionBALate versus EarlyDISTANCE versus NATURALINDULGE versus NATURAL
Early time point onlyLate time period onlyEarly time point onlyLate time period only
Z scorekxyzβ (SE)pβ (SE)pβ (SE)pβ (SE)p
DISTANCE > NATURAL
    R Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex10/464.26453039−1.15 (0.27)<0.0011.07 (0.31)0.002−0.20 (0.33)NS−0.57 (0.31)0.07
DISTANCE < NATURAL
    L Ventral anterior cingulate/ventromedial prefrontal cortex323.0025−94800.67 (0.29)0.03−0.87 (0.29)0.007−0.37 (0.31)NS0.14 (0.32)NS
    L Caudate4.95−39−61.31 (0.30)<0.001−0.97 (0.27)0.0010.82 (0.29)0.01−0.16 (0.31)NS
INDULGE > NATURAL
    No regions significant
INDULGE < NATURAL
    L Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex10/464.340−392127−0.09 (0.24)NS−0.33 (0.25)NS0.38 (0.17)0.03−1.05 (0.20)<0.001
    R Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex10/463.12*325145120.05 (0.45)NS−0.24 (0.34)NS0.78 (0.43)NS−1.01 (0.31)0.003
    L Inferior parietal lobule74.149−9−69601.22 (0.81)NS1.47 (0.85)NS2.06 (0.82)0.02−2.24 (0.71)0.004
INDULGE > DISTANCE
    L Ventral anterior cingulate/ventromedial prefrontal cortex324.4352−63900.51 (0.35)NS−0.76 (0.30)0.02−0.66 (0.31)0.040.34 (0.32)NS
INDULGE < DISTANCE
    R Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex10/463.7361453024−0.85 (0.23)0.0010.92 (0.36)0.020.16 (0.29)NS−0.95 (0.29)0.003
    L Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex10/463.3626−393024−0.61 (0.32)0.07−0.01 (0.29)NS0.41 (0.25)NS−1.03 (0.29)0.001
    R Parietal cortex404.246127−4839−0.62 (0.27)0.030.71 (0.36)0.060.55 (0.31)0.08−0.86 (0.34)0.02
    L Precuneus74.13149−12−69570.09 (0.54)NS1.21 (0.62)0.061.18 (0.61)0.06−1.76 (0.55)0.003
  • Note: Clusters are reported at p < 0.05, whole-brain cluster corrected unless otherwise noted.

  • *p = 0.05 SVC within an anatomically defined mask including vmPFC, right dlPFC, and left dlPFC.

  • p < 0.005, uncorrected, reported for completeness.