Table 1.

Spanish–Catalan bilingual participants' linguistic background

VariableMinimumMaximumMeanSD
Onset of listening to Catalan (years)06a1.11.9
Onset of speaking Catalan (years)07a2.22.1
Onset of listening to Spanish (years)06a1.21.9
Onset of speaking Spanish (years)06a2.42.0
Pronunciation score in Catalan (1–4)131.10.5
Pronunciation score in Spanish (1–4)121.20.4
Proportion listening to Catalan (%)208046.118.6
Proportion speaking Catalan (%)109057.524.1
  • The fluency scores used a four-point scale (1 = perfect, 2 = good, 3 = sufficient, 4 = poor).

  • aAll participants, except two (who started between 5–7 years of age), started to listen and talk both languages before 3 years of age.