Table 1.

Summary of the early influence of experience on the development of orientation and direction selectivity in the mouse and ferret

PropertyMouseFerret
Eye openingP14P27–P32
Retina
    Direction selectivity (DS)Develops between P8 and P141; tuning width narrows over next 2–4 weeks2
        Altered by dark-rearing?Tuning not altered; responses in preferred direction are lower at P14 in dark-reared animals1,2
        Altered by activity blockade?Not altered by knock-out of β2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor2; not altered by muscimol or gabazine1
Cortex
    Orientation selectivity (OS):Present at natural eye opening, increases 1–2 weeks post-eye opening3; fast-spiking interneurons exhibit moderate OS at eye opening that is reduced after 1–2 weeks post-eye opening4Present before natural eye opening5,6
        Altered by dark-rearing?No3 (fast spiking interneuron result unknown in dark-reared animals)No7,8,9
        Impact of early experienceRearing that restricts viewing to a particular orientation produces an over-representation of that orientation in cortex10Lid suture reduces OS6,11; rearing that restricts viewing to a particular orientation results in over-representation of that orientation; controversial whether neurons that initially preferred other orientations alter orientation preferences or merely become unresponsive12,13
Direction selectivity (DS)Present at eye opening; direction preferences exhibit a strong upward and nasal bias, and become isotropic 3–4 d after eye opening3Very weak at eye opening7,8,9
        Altered by dark-rearingNo3Yes: DS not present in dark-reared animals7,9
        Impact of early experienceNone known3Experience with bidirectional motion stimulus causes the emergence of DS such that some cells prefer 1 of the stimulated directions and others prefer the opposite direction8; Unidirectional training causes majority of cells to develop preference for the trained direction9
  • References: 1Wei et al. (2011);

  • 2Elstrott et al. (2008);

  • 3Rochefort et al. (2011);

  • 4Kuhlman et al. (2011);

  • 5Krug et al. (2001);

  • 6Chapman and Stryker (1993);

  • 7Li et al. (2006);

  • 8Li et al. (2008);

  • 9Van Hooser et al. (2012);

  • 10Yoshida et al. (2012);

  • 11White et al. (2001);

  • 12Stryker et al. (1978);

  • 13Blakemore and Van Sluyters (1975).