Table 1.

Percentage, number of bouts, and mean bout duration (seconds) (±SEM) of sleep–wake state (wake, slow-wave sleep, and REM sleep)

WakeSWSREM sleep
Control ratsPZ lesion ratsControl micePZ VGAT KO miceControl ratsPZ lesion ratsControl micePZ VGAT KO miceControl ratsPZ lesion ratsControl micePZ VGAT KO mice
Light
    % of time36.2 ± 4.658.4 ± 3.4c36.9 ± 1.760.8 ± 7.0c56.2 ± 4.134.2 ± 2.9c54.3 ± 1.534.7 ± 6.0c7.5 ± 0.67.4 ± 0.68.8 ± 0.44.6 ± 1.0c
    Number171.6 ± 16.4135.2 ± 10.1183.0 ± 8.0132.9 ± 19.6a174.7 ± 16.3137.3 ± 9.8186.5 ± 8.1133.8 ± 19.9a40.5 ± 3.534.1 ± 5.256.2 ± 4.329.4 ± 6.0b
    Duration (s)93.5 ± 18.4188.2 ± 17.0a85.0 ± 6.5202.1 ± 45.2148.8 ± 10.5112.1 ± 10.4a127.3 ± 5.9113.7 ± 12.885.1 ± 4.095.3 ± 4.570.2 ± 3.073.2 ± 10.0
Dark
    % of time57.2 ± 2.766.2 ± 2.553.7 ± 2.867.9 ± 1.2a38.5 ± 2.228.6 ± 2.240.3 ± 2.428.7 ± 0.94.3 ± 0.65.2 ± 0.65.9 ± 0.43.5 ± 0.4a
    Number121.6 ± 8.2125.5 ± 14.5143.6 ± 9.8109.0 ± 14.8124.2 ± 8.1126.4 ± 14.3146.4 ± 9.5109.5 ± 14.424.8 ± 2.430.2 ± 5.240.8 ± 3.521.1 ± 3.1a
    Duration (s)198.2 ± 15.6261.7 ± 36.7178.6 ± 23.6308.9 ± 50.0a127.1 ± 4.8103.4 ± 9.9121.5 ± 6.8128.5 ± 17.764.0 ± 3.582.1 ± 7.463.2 ± 1.976.2 ± 5.8
24 h
    % of time41.2 ± 1.662.0 ± 1.7c45.3 ± 2.164.3 ± 3.2c51.9 ± 1.431.7 ± 1.8c47.3 ± 1.831.7 ± 2.7c6.9 ± 0.56.3 ± 0.37.4 ± 0.44.0 ± 0.5c
    Number299.5 ± 20.5261.0 ± 22.8326.6 ± 16.7242.0 ± 26.0a304.5 ± 20.1263.8 ± 22.1332.9 ± 16.5243.4 ± 26.0b69.0 ± 3.864.3 ± 6.797.0 ± 7.350.5 ± 7.3c
    Duration (s)131.6 ± 7.6218.1 ± 17.6c123.4 ± 11.3221.0 ± 18.8c142.8 ± 7.4108.4 ± 9.7b124.1 ± 6.1118.6 ± 14.178.5 ± 2.889.3 ± 5.966.4 ± 2.171.9 ± 5.8
  • Percentage, number of bouts, and mean bout duration (seconds) (±SEM) of sleep–wake state (W, SWS, and REM sleep) in PZ-lesioned rats (n = 11) are compared with control rats (n = 13). Similar data are compared between PZ VGAT KO mice (n = 5) and littermate controls (n = 6). Averages are given for the 12 h light period, the 12 h dark period, and the 24 h day.

  • ap < 0.05;

  • bp < 0.01;

  • cp < 0.001, using a post hoc Tukey's test (light/dark condition) or a two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (24 h condition).