Table 2.

Approximation of item difficulty in the semantic fluency condition of Heim et al. (2008) based on Mannhaupt (1983)

Heim et al. ItemMannhaupt
Related item (#)Search fieldExpected difficulty
Birds“Vogel” (36)15.65Low
MammalsNANANA
Food“Nahrungsmittel” (21)13.87Low
WeaponsNANANA
Tools“Werkzeug” (31)8.69High
Toys“Spielzeug” (14)9.65High
  • Because Heim et al. (2008) tested German natives, item difficulty of the applied semantic categories can be approximated using normative data from a German sample reported by Mannhaupt (1983). The variable “search field” is an empirically derived estimation of the size of a given semantic category that reflects its difficulty; a larger search field is associated with a lower difficulty and vice versa. NA indicates not assessed.