Table 1.

Groups are matched on a wide array of demographic criteria, including: sex, age, intelligence, hearing, educational attainment, and levels of current exercise (RM-ANOVAs, all p > 0.15)a

CriterionNone (0 years; N = 15)Little (1–3 years; N = 14)Moderate (4–14 years; N = 13)
Number of females699
Age (years)63.56 (3.76)65.46 (4.54)65.15 (5.46)
IQ (standard score)120.40 (8.09)118.69 (8.44)122.38 (5.37)
    IQ-verbal (t-score)63.13 (7.18)63.42 (6.13)62.41 (5.07)
    IQ-nonverbal (t-score)58.13 (10.25)58.91 (6.77)62.75 (4.69)
PTA (dB HL; average hearing 0.5–4 kHz)20.61 (11.51)17.19 (11.39)24.95 (8.90)
Click V latency (ms)6.25 (0.32)5.98 (0.49)5.97 (0.33)
Education3.47 (0.64)3.23 (0.56)3.77 (0.44)
Exercise levels2.62 (1.39)2.81 (0.98)2.90 (1.19)
Years of music training1.71 (0.61)8.14 (3.68)
Years since music training52.01 (4.10)47.46 (6.92)
  • aMeans are reported with SDs. PTA, Pure-tone average hearing threshold (dB HL) measured bilaterally from 0.5 to 4 kHz. Refer to Materials and Methods for information on how education and exercise were rated.