Table 2.

Brain regions exhibiting significant activity modulated with the participants' distance to the goal location at time points sampled throughout the FPP navigation phasea

ContrastAreaKELeftKERight
TMNI x, y, zTMNI x, y, z
FPP distance analysisHippocampus (tail)18,3693.36−18, −40, 418,3693.4424, −40, 4
Precuneus3.81−4, −72, 5218,3695.814, −62, 60
Superior parietal lobule4.10−18, −70, 605.4420, −72, 58
Dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex3723.50−38, 34, 323.9642, 34, 36
Caudate (dorsal)18,3692.5612, 4, 122.93−12, −2, 16
Superior marginal gyrus6.05−42, −54, 467.1044, −58, 48
Superior frontal gyrus3.64−4, 24, 403.558, 24, 46
Middle temporal gyrus4853.6962, −50, −8
Insula3.20−42, 10, 618,3693.9044, 16, −4
Cuneus2.93−4, −80, 262.794, −72, 20
Pons2764.41−2, −30, −342764.701, −30, −34
Cerebellum1573.76−20, −28, −344.0024, −30, −30
  • aMNI coordinates reflect cluster-center voxels. T-values reflect a statistical threshold of p < 0.01. Activation clusters survived cluster-threshold correction for multiple comparisons to p < 0.01 with a minimum cluster size of 144.