Table 2.

Memory performance according to the auditory verbal learning task dependent on group

Parameter (no. of words)ResveratrolPlacebo
PrePostpPrePostp
Retention−2.2 ± 2.4−1.3 ± 1.60.041a−2.0 ± 2.0−2.4 ± 2.40.30b
Delayed recall10.6 ± 4.012.4 ± 3.30.011a10.1 ± 3.110.7 ± 3.30.24b
Recognition12.0 ± 3.313.6 ± 1.60.015a11.9 ± 3.113.1 ± 2.30.06a
Learning ability54.4 ± 11.659.7 ± 9.30.002b51.6 ± 9.656.1 ± 90.006b
Fifth learning trial12.8 ± 2.113.6 ± 1.90.041a12.0 ± 1.713.1 ± 1.50.011b
  • Significant changes are indicated by bolding the number. Data are given as mean ± SD (raw scores). Memory “retention” was defined as the number of correct words recalled after the fifth trial (maximum 15 words) subtracted from those correctly recalled after the 30 min delay (maximum 15 words) multiplied by 1 to create positive relations. “Delayed recall” was defined as the number of correctly recalled words after the 30 min delay (maximum 15 words) and “recognition” was defined as the number of correctly recognized words minus false positives out of a subsequent list of 45 words read out loudly that comprised 15 correct and 30 new words (maximum = 15). “Learning ability” was defined as the sum of correctly recalled words during the five immediate learning trials (maximum score = 75 words). Raw scores were standardized into z-scores by substracting the group's mean from the individual score, followed by division by the group's SD.

  • aWilcoxon signed-rank test.

  • bPaired t test.