Table 1.

Neuropsychological results for patients and controlsa

Cognitive variableControl groupTBI Group 1TBI Group 2
Similarities35.1 ± 6.238.7 ± 3.8*34.8 ± 5.2
Matrix Reasoning26.5 ± 4.227.4 ± 4.824.9 ± 6.2
Verbal Fluency Letter Fluency48.5 ± 12.044.1 ± 11.235.9 ± 14.3*
Stroop Color Naming (s)32.2 ± 14.134.0 ± 8.935.6 ± 8.5
Stroop Word Reading (s)29.6 ± 5.123.4 ± 4.824.6 ± 6.5
Stroop Inhibition (s)22.4 ± 4.258.3 ± 20.9**56.9 ± 18.1**
Stroop Inhibition-Switching (s)51.5 ± 18.768.4 ± 21.2**66.8 ± 19.5**
Trail Making Test A (s)21.5 ± 5.727.4 ± 10.4*30.3 ± 14.1**
Trail Making Test B (s)53.7 ± 38.564.7 ± 35.167.4 ± 44
Trail Making Test Switch Cost29.3 ± 31.333.2 ± 6.635.9 ± 8.2
Digit Span forward11.2 ± 2.010.6 ± 2.29.6 ± 2.2**
Digit Span backward7.6 ± 1.77.4 ± 2.37.3 ± 2.5
Logical Memory I 1st recall total28.1 ± 8.427.9 ± 6.525.7 ± 7.9
Logical Memory I recall total45.1 ± 12.845.5 ± 8.741.6 ± 11.5
Logical Memory II recall total26.6 ± 8.529.4 ± 7.025.2 ± 9.6
People Test immediate total27.5 ± 6.224.1 ± 5.621.6 ± 7.5**
People Test delayed total9.2 ± 3.68.8 ± 2.37.6 ± 4
  • aData are mean ± SD. Neuropsychological results for TBI patients compared with an age-matched control group. Stroop test refers to the D-KEFS Color-Word Interference Test.

  • *p < 0.05,

  • **p < 0.005, significant differences between patients and controls.