Table 1.

Tasks included in the EF battery

TaskDescriptionReferences
Stroop taskSubjects were asked to complete a full session (6 blocks) of the Psychology Experiment Building Language version of the Stroop task (∼20 min)Stroop, 1992; DeWall et al., 2007; Mueller, 2009
Visual attention taskSubjects were instructed to concentrate their attention on a (mute) speaker, while ignoring words presented in either the bottom left or right corner of the monitor (2 trials, 9 min + 1 min interval each)DeWall et al., 2007; Gailliot et al., 2007; Fischer et al., 2008
Emotion suppression taskSubjects were instructed to maintain a neutral facial expression (in particular not to yawn or laugh) while watching a boring (9 min + 1 min interval) or a funny (9 min + 1 min interval) short video including clips depicting people yawing or a collection of funny situations, respectivelyBaumeister et al., 1998; Muraven et al., 1998; Vohs and Heatherton, 2000; Muraven and Slessareva, 2003; Stucke and Baumeister, 2006; Fischer et al., 2008
Response conflict taskSubjects were presented with 180 simple short questions (e.g., “what is the color of the sun?”) and two possible answers (e.g., “yellow or blue”). With a 300 ms delay, a green or a red sign appeared below the question, indicating whether the subject had to give the correct or the wrong response, respectively. Subjects were required to respond as fast and as accurately as possible (∼20 min)Modified from Nuñez et al., 2005
Blackjack taskSubjects were required to play a Blackjack game, which is known to involve risk evaluation, decision-making and gambling-related impulse control (∼25 min)Hewig et al., 2007; Vohs et al., 2008; Hewig et al., 2009