Table 1.

Quantitative analysis of the number of HSV-1 H129 (tdTomato-positive) cells located in brain regions in receipt of airway afferent inputs via relay neurons in either the Sol or Pa5

Early (n = 10)Mid (n = 17)
Sol (n = 6)Pa5 (n = 4)Sol (n = 7)Pa5 (n = 10)
Hindbrain
    Medulla
        Caudal ventrolateral (CVL)93.7 ± 37.6 (4)21.5 ± 12.8 (2)347.0 ± 44.2 (7)* (p = 1 × 10−4)49.1 ± 22.1 (5)
        Dorsomedial spinal trigeminal (DMSp5)73.5 ± 22.4 (6)* (p = 0.019)
        Gigantocellular reticular (DpGi, Gi, LpGi)21.3 ± 15.9 (2)154.7 ± 51.0 (5)63.9 ± 26.0 (5)
        Inferior olive (IOB, C, D)35.3 ± 28.2 (2)89.0 ± 39.0 (3)203.0 ± 50.5 (6)97.6 ± 59.7 (4)
        Intermediate reticular (IRt)234.6 ± 138.7 (5)59.5 ± 26.4 (3)1020.0 ± 275.6 (7)* (p = 0.01)332.3 ± 85.2 (9)
        Lateral reticular (LRt)53.0 ± 39.5 (2)30.2 ± 12.3 (3)288.7 ± 76.2 (7)* (p = 0.003)64.5 ± 21.4 (7)
        Medullary reticular formation (MdV)20.8 ± 12.5 (3)125.7 ± 53.7 (4)68.8 ± 32.1 (4)
        Sol498.0 ± 78.5 (6)* (p = 0.001)1007.3 ± 272.9 (6)* (p = 0.001)106.4 ± 39.5 (6)
        Paratrigeminal (Pa5)267.0 ± 89.5 (4)* (p = 0.01)273.3 ± 76.2 (8)* (p = 0.01)
        Paramedian reticular (PMn)41.3 ± 26.1 (3)42.5 ± 42.5 (1)165.4 ± 55.2 (5)80.0 ± 27.5 (6)
        Parvicellular recticular (PCRt)68.4 ± 34.3 (3)16.6 ± 12.1 (2)
        Pyramids (py)51.5 ± 49.1 (2)6.0 ± 6.0 (1)134.9 ± 71.1 (3)37.6 ± 28.3 (2)
        Rostral ventrolateral (RVL)198.8 ± 93.9 (4)10.5 ± 10.5 (1)536.6 ± 108.9 (7)* (p = 0.0003)83.6 ± 40.4 (5)
        Spinal trigeminal (Sp5)8.5 ± 8.5 (1)167.3 ± 89.5 (4)28.7 ± 20.9 (2)355.6 ± 170.1 (10)
        Spinal trigeminal tract (sp5)183.5 ± 43.7 (4)* (p = 0.002)36.3 ± 36.3 (1)145.5 ± 90.6 (5)
    Pons
        Inferior cerebellar peduncle (icp)118.0 ± 65.6 (2)55.3 ± 35.7 (2)83.2 ± 36.9 (4)
        Kölliker–Fuse (KF)29.8 ± 16.5 (3)30.0 ± 17.8 (3)8.73 ± 5.86 (2)
        Locus coeruleus (LC)18.3 ± 6.0 (3)6.0 ± 6.0 (1)54.1 ± 17.9 (5)* (p = 0.03)15.2 ± 5.8 (5)
        Medial lemniscus (ml)59.7 ± 44.6 (2)42.3 ± 42.3(1)133.6 ± 40.1 (5)140.0 ± 42.7 (8)
        Parabrachial
            Medial (MPB)13.2 ± 13.2 (1)10.0 ± 5.3 (3)22.2 ± 9.9 (5)
            Lateral (LPB)32.2 ± 17.8 (3)1.8 ± 1.8 (1)134.4 ± 36.8 (7)* (p = 0.02)45.5 ± 15.6 (8)
        Principal sensory trigeminal (Pr5)114.0 ± 114.0 (1)199.0 ± 88.8 (8)
        Spinal trigeminal (Sp5)25.5 ± 25.5 (1)9.7 ± 9.7 (1)253.1 ± 82.4 (9)* (p = 0.03)
        Spinal trigeminal tract (sp5)69.5 ± 69.5 (1)53.2 ± 30.0 (3)
        Superior cerebellar peduncle (scp)149.5 ± 149.5 (1)6.43 ± 6.43 (1)8.36 ± 5.84 (2)
        Trapezoid body (Tz)10.7 ± 5.6 (3)9.6 ± 6.5 (2)
    Midbrain
        Deep mesencephalic (DpMe)53.17 ± 23.4 (4)95.4 ± 32.8 (6)27.0 ± 19.1 (3)
        Inferior colliculus (CIC, DCIC)45.9 ± 34.7 (2)26.1 ± 26.1 (1)
        Medial lemniscus (ml)95.8 ± 54.6 (3)213.4 ± 68.2 (6)152.8 ± 29.0 (9)
        Periaqueductual grey (PAG)2.0 ± 2.0 (1)13.4 ± 5.2 (4)15.0 ± 6.6 (5)
    Sub/hypothalamus and other
        Caudate putamen (CPu)45.3 ± 22.9 (3)27.4 ± 14.2 (3)
        Central amygdaloid (CeA)18.7 ± 18.7 (1)63.1 ± 29.6 (4)* (p = 0.02)1.6 ± 1.6 (1)
        Globus pallidus (GP)16.4 ± 8.2 (3)5.1 ± 5.1 (1)
        Lateral hypothalamic area (LH)7.0 ± 7.0 (1)84.9 ± 35.9 (5)* (p = 0.02)11.6 ± 6.5 (3)
        Paraventricular hypothalamus (Pa)29.17 ± 17.64 (3)139.2 ± 56.1 (5)* (p = 0.01)7.3 ± 5.1 (2)
        Subthalmic nucleus (SubT)60.4 ± 35.6 (3)4.9 ± 4.9 (1)
        Zona Incerta (ZI)148.3 ± 79.3 (4)278.6 ± 72.5 (7)* (p = 0.003)16.0 ± 7.1 (4)
    Thalamus
        Medial lemniscus (ml)71.0 ± 47.2 (3)52.7 ± 26.4 (4)
        Mediodorsal thalamus (MD)6.4 ± 6.4 (1)1.1 ± 1.1 (1)
        Posterior thalamic group (Po)151.4 ± 82.8 (3)* (p = 0.035)3.3 ± 3.3 (1)
        Reticular thalamus (Rt)178.4 ± 178.1 (1)42.6 ± 28.7 (3)
        Submedius thalamus (Sub)175.4 ± 65.0 (6)* (p = 0.048)
        Ventral
            Posterior parvicellular thalamus (VPPC)
            Posterolateral thalamus (VPL)417.0 ± 132.2 (10)* (p = 0.024)
            Posteromedial thalamus (VPM)321.4 ± 215.8 (3)257.4 ± 116.4 (7)
            Lateral thalamus (VL)
            Medial thalamus (VM)92.1 ± 51.1 (3)54.7 ± 37.0 (4)
  • The time points early and mid refer to the time points surveyed after viral inoculation (see Materials and Methods for details). Data represents the mean ± SEM total number of tdTomato-expressing neurons counted for each brain region listed. Dashes denote that no tdTomato-expressing cells were seen in the region of interest in any of the animals (i.e., 0 ± 0). Values in parentheses represent the number of animals in the group in which the region of interest was infected (tdTomato expression).

  • *Significant difference between regions receiving projections from either the Sol or Pa5 as determined by a Student's t test.