Table 2.

Genes associated with regions of mtDNA damage

PrimerGeneaStartingEndingFunction
Region I607b4256b
Region II4223b8188b
    B23644262
NADH dehydrogenase subunit 133074262ATP production
16S ribosomal RNA16713229Mitochondrial protein synthesis
Humanin26342707Mitochondrially derived peptide
tRNA leucine 1 (LUUA/G)32303304tRNA
Transcription terminator32293256Transcription regulation
Region III8148b13594b
Region IV13541b15996b
    G1161413638
NADH dehydrogenase subunit 41076012137ATP production
NADH dehydrogenase subunit 51233714148ATP production
tRNA histidine1213812206tRNA
tRNA leucine 2 L(CUN)1226612336tRNA
tRNA serine 2 S(AGY)1220712265tRNA
Region IV13541b15996b
    H1353915431
Cytochrome b1474715887ATP production
NADH dehydrogenase subunit 51233714148ATP production
NADH dehydrogenase subunit 61414914673ATP production
tRNA glutamic acid1467614742tRNA
Region IV13541b15996b
Region I607b4256b
    I15331815
Mt3 H-strand control element384391Control region
Mt4 H-strand control element371379Control region
Control element1619416208Control region
7S DNA16106191Control region, D loop
Conserved sequence block 1213235Transcription regulation
Conserved sequence block 2299315Transcription regulation
Conserved sequence block 3346363Transcription regulation
Replication primer317321Transcription regulation
Major H-strand promoter545567Control region
Minor H-strand promoter645645Control region
Hypervariable segment 11602416383Control region
Hypervariable segment 257372Control region
Hypervariable segment 3438574Control region
L-strand promoter392445Control region
L-strand control element1649916506Control region
mtTF1 binding site523550Transcription regulation
mtTF1 binding site418445Transcription regulation
mtTF1 binding site233260Transcription regulation
mtTF1 binding site276303Transcription regulation
tRNA phenylalanine577647tRNA
H-strand origin110441Control region
Control region, including D Loop16024576Control region
Termination associated sequence1615716172Control region
tRNA proline1595616023tRNA
tRNA threonine1588815953tRNA
Membrane attachment site15925499Localization
Cytochrome b1474715887ATP production
12S ribosomal RNA6481601Mitochondrial protein synthesis
  • aMITOMAP: A Human Mitochondrial Genome Database; http://www.mitomap.org (2013).

  • bPrimer target regions on the mt genome (Karunadharma et al., 2010) that overlap with primers (B, G, H, I) used in the current study.