Table 1.

Prior reports of the hemisphere controlling head movements in humans

IpsilateralContralateralBilateral
Beevor (1909)aHanajima et al. (1998)bPenfield and Rasmussen (1950)b
Balagura and Katz (1980)aKang et al. (2011)aBenecke et al. (1988)b
Willoughby and Anderson (1984)aGandevia and Applegate (1988)b
Berardelli et al. (1991)b
Mastaglia et al. (1986)aOdergren and Rimpilainen (1996)b
Manon-Espaillat and Ruff (1988)aOdergren et al. (1997)b
Thompson et al. (1997)b
Anagnostou et al. (2011)aDeToledo and Dow (1998)a
• The hemisphere controlling movements was taken from the results reported by each study, because the interpretations sometimes did not match the actual results provided.

• a Studies of stroke or epilepsy cases.

• b Studies of electrical or magnetic stimulation of the precentral gyrus.