Table 2.

Description of abnormal postures and movements observed in oxotremorine-treated mice

Abnormal postures
    (a) The mouse often extends one or both hind limbs abnormally from the body axis (splayed posture) for a sustained amount of time (>10 s)
    (b) The mouse stands vertically on hind limbs for short periods motionless, agitating both forelimb paws, or occasionally with a single raised paw
    (c) The mouse often has a hunched posture with little movement, then attempts to make movements, often making small head jerks
Abnormal movements
    (a) One or both forelimbs move rapidly up and down resembling the first phase of the grooming chain as if the mouse is about to start elliptic movements around the nose, but no elliptic movement is produced; rubbing together of forelimb paws also observed
    (b) Repetitive jerking of the snout or head
    (c) Frequent twitching of the body when the animal is in a resting position
    (d) Slow walking, occasionally with extended body and/or with abnormal hind limb gait
Scoring scale
    0. Normal motor behavior
    1. No impairment, but slightly slowed movements
    2. Mild impairment: occasional abnormal postures and movements; ambulation with slow walk
    3. Moderate impairment: frequent abnormal postures and movements with limited ambulation
    4. Severe impairment: sustained abnormal postures without any ambulation or upright position
  • Scoring scale used to evaluate abnormal postures and movements in mice is modified from Jinnah et al. (2000).