Table 7.

Neural correlates of the cost prediction error at the time of answer revealed by using GLM3

AreaLeft, right, bilateralClusterPeak (T)MNI coordinates (mm)
Sizep(FWE)xyz
A, Experiment 1
     Positive correlation
        InsulaRight1900.0055.636264
        Anterior insulaLeft1570.0106.4−3323−5
        dmFC/dACCBilateral529<0.0015.89−155
        Posterior insula/primary auditory cortexRight1070.0405.239−224
        Occipital lobe/parietal lobeBilateral6393<0.0018.6−18−88−14
B, Experiment 2
     Positive correlation
        dmFC/dACC/middle cingulate cortexBilateral494<0.0018.0−92037
        Anterior insulaRight1120.0105.530207
        Primary motor cortex/primary somatosensory cortex/supramarginal gyrusLeft1610.0026.7−36−2258
        Fusiform gyrusRight1650.0016.430−73−14
        Fusiform gyrusLeft214<0.0015.5−24−73−11
        Occipital lobeLeft940.0205.9−15−9125
     Negative correlation
        StriatumRight740.0476.221819
C, Conjunction analysis
     Positive correlation (strict maska)
        Anterior insulabRight650.1444.433207
        dmFC/dACCBilateral1790.0064.8−9−155
        Primary motor cortex/primary somatosensory cortexLeft1480.0135.3−39−2252
        Superior occipital gyrusbLeft770.0994.6−18−8231
        Fusiform gyrusLeft1100.0375.5−27−82−11
  • The brain area, laterality of hemisphere, cluster size, cluster p value, peak T value, and peak coordinate of the fMRI results for the neural correlates of the CPE at the time of answer obtained by using GLM3. Methods for analyses and statistical thresholds are described in Materials and Methods and Results.

  • aA binary mask consisting of common voxels at cluster-level FWE corrected p < 0.05 and voxel-level uncorrected p < 0.001.

  • bCluster-level uncorrected p < 0.05 and voxel-level uncorrected p < 0.001; with a binary mask consisting of common voxels at cluster-level FWE corrected p < 0.05 and voxel-level uncorrected p < 0.001.