Table 2.

Neural correlates of the expected cost of mental effort for the chosen option revealed by using GLM1

AreaLeft, right, bilateralClusterPeak (T)MNI coordinates (mm)
Sizep(FWE)xyz
A, Experiment 1
     Positive correlation
        MFG/inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insulaRight691<0.0016.033504
        aMFG/anterior insulaLeft2130.0016.2−30477
        dmFC/dACCBilateral354<0.0016.301449
        Inferior parietal lobuleRight230<0.0015.645−5249
     Negative correlation
        Rostromedial PFCBilateral1370.0065.405913
        vmPFC/striatumBilateral291<0.0017.6341−17
        Primary motor cortex/primary somatosensory cortexRight920.0315.342−1964
        Temporal lobeLeft749<0.0016.7−42−3725
        PrecuneusLeft1800.0025.2−6−6722
B, Experiment 2
     Positive correlation
        aMFG/orbitofrontal cortexLeft1290.0107.6−33444
        Anterior insulaLeft860.0446.1−27264
        dmFC/dACC/superior frontal gyrusBilateral520<0.0017.462049
        Anterior insula/aMFG/orbitofrontal cortexRight582<0.00113.733204
        Inferior parietal lobuleRight1420.0065.248−4955
        CerebellumLeft1430.0068.5−18−61−41
     Negative correlation
        StriatumaBilateral300.4254.505−8
C, Conjunction analysis
     Positive correlation (strict maskb)
        dmFC/dACCBilateral2150.0026.362046
        Anterior insulacRight570.1644.930204
        aMFGcLeft500.2115.5−30477
        aMFGRight2120.0025.633441
        Inferior parietal lobulecRight750.0884.945−4949
     Negative correlation (relaxed maskd)
        vmPFCeBilateral680.1124.3−653−5
  • A, B, The brain area, laterality of hemisphere, cluster size, cluster p value, peak T value, and peak coordinate of the regions that were positively and negatively correlated with the expected cost of mental effort for the chosen option (ExpectedCostchosen) predicted by the PE-HL model in Experiment 1 (n = 21; A) or Experiment 2 (n = 15; B) revealed by using GLM1. Statistical thresholds were set to be cluster-level FWE corrected p < 0.05 and voxel-level uncorrected p < 0.001 except for the case of the negative correlation in Experiment 2, for which the thresholds were voxel-level uncorrected p < 0.001 and voxel size ≥5. C, The information for the regions obtained in the conjunction analyses shown in Figure 9A. Methods for analyses and statistical thresholds were the same as those used for Figure 9.

  • aVoxel-level uncorrected p < 0.001 and voxel size ≥5.

  • bA binary mask consisting of common voxels at cluster-level FWE corrected p < 0.05 and voxel-level uncorrected p < 0.001.

  • cCluster-level uncorrected p < 0.05 and voxel-level uncorrected p < 0.001; with a binary mask consisting of common voxels at cluster-level FWE corrected p < 0.05 and voxel-level uncorrected p < 0.001.

  • dA binary mask consisting of common voxels at voxel-level uncorrected p < 0.01.

  • eCluster-level uncorrected p < 0.05 and voxel-level uncorrected p < 0.001; with a binary mask consisting of common voxels at voxel-level uncorrected p < 0.01.