Table 2.

Baseline characteristics by treatment arma

CharacteristictDCS group (n = 39)Sham group (n = 42)Statisticbp value
Sex
    Female2421χ2 = 1.090.30
    Male1521
Age20.26 years (4.13 years)20.17 years (2.36 years)t = −0.120.90
Race
    Caucasian1719χ2 = 0.020.88
    Non-Caucasian2223
Grade point averagec3.55 (0.27)3.47 (0.33)t = −1.180.24
Social adversity0.72 (1.15)1.45 (1.67)t = 2.320.02
Variety of offending17.36 (6.25)16.38 (6.22)t = −0.710.48
Aggression9.92 (4.97)8.86 (4.48)t = −1.020.31
Psychopathy23.33 (11.85)23.02 (12.65)t = −0.110.91
Lack of premeditation1.59 (0.49)1.63 (0.49)t = 0.380.71
Sensation-seeking2.89 (0.65)2.88 (0.65)t = −0.070.94
Anxiety38.79 (8.53)38.43 (9.25)t = −0.190.85
Self-control37.05 (6.69)35.52 (7.18)t = −0.990.33
  • aData for continuous variables are presented as mean (SD).

  • bDifferences in baseline scores were compared using two-tailed independent t test and χ2 tests.

  • cFor eight individuals whose grade point averages were missing, mean imputation was conducted. Missing values were replaced with the mean of the observed data as suggested in Kahan et al. (2014).