Table 2.

Demographic, psychological, and behavioral details of Dataset 2a

Controls (all)SczControls (subset)
N1115660
Age (yr)32.8 (11.5)45.3 (8.8)39.5 (11.4)
Gender45 M, 66 F38 M, 18 F40 M, 20 F
NARTb112 (6.9)109 (8.2)112 (7.5)
Working memory (LNS)c16.2 (2.8)10.3 (4.2)16.4 (2.7)
Schizotypy
SPQ, cognitive2.8 (1.9)4.0 (2.6)3.1 (2)
SPQ, interpers3.2 (2.2)5.3 (2.6)3.2 (2.2)
SPQ, disorg2.1 (1.7)2.7 (1.9)1.9 (1.8)
SPQ, totald8.2 (1.3)12 (5.3)8.2 (4.4)
Diagnoses56 Scz
PANSS, gen32.6 (9.2)
PANSS, pos15.9 (5.8)
PANSS, neg15.9 (6.2)
PANSS, total64.4 (17.3)
Initial certainty (all, 1 bead)e0.67 (0.13)0.71 (0.14)0.68 (0.14)
Initial certainty (all, 2–3 beads)f0.7 (0.12)0.71 (0.12)0.71 (0.13)
Disconfirmatory updating (all sequences)g−0.16 (0.17)−0.23 (0.22)−0.19 (0.2)
Final certainty Sequence Ah0.88 (0.16)0.77 (0.25)0.86 (0.18)
Final certainty Sequence Di0.12 (0.18)0.25 (0.24)0.16 (0.2)
  • aIn dataset 2, IQ was estimated using the National Adult Reading Test (NART) (Nelson, 1982) and working memory using the Letter Number Sequencing task (LNS) from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (Wechsler, 1997). Schizotypy was assessed using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) (Raine, 1991), and symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) (Kay et al., 1987). As can be seen in Figure 2, the Scz group showed greater initial certainty (1 bead) in Sequences A and B (Welch's t(94) = 2.8, p = 0.007, Cohen's d = 0.47; Welch's t(97) = 3, p = 0.004, Cohen's d = 0.5, respectively) but not Sequences C and D (Welch's t(87) = 0.5, p = 0.6, Cohen's d = 0.09; Welch's t(90) = −0.34, p = 0.73, Cohen's d = 0.06, respectively).

  • bControls (all): Welch's t(95.1) = 2.27, p = 0.026, Cohen's d = 0.38; Controls (subset): Welch's t(111) = 1.95, p = 0.053, Cohen's d = 0.36.

  • cControls (all): Welch's t(81) = 9.57, p = 10−14, Cohen's d = 1.66; Controls (subset): Welch's t(93.6) = 9.25, p = 10−15, Cohen's d = 1.73.

  • dControls (all): Welch's t(92.4) = −4.64, p = 10−5, Cohen's d = 0.78; Controls (subset): Welch'st(107) = −4.19, p = 10−5, Cohen's d = 0.78.

  • eControls (all): Welch's t(110) = −1.9, p = 0.059, Cohen's d = 0.32; Controls (subset): Welch's t(110) = −1.1, p = 0.28, Cohen's d = 0.2.

  • fControls (all): Welch's t(109.1) = −0.76, p = 0.45, Cohen's d = 0.12; Controls (subset): Welch's t(113.9) = −0.19, p = 0.85, Cohen's d = 0.03.

  • gControls (all): Welch's t(88.2) = 2.09, p = 0.04, Cohen's d = 0.36; Controls (subset): Welch's t(110.4) = −0.94, p = 0.35, Cohen's d = 0.18.

  • hControls (all): Welch's t(80.1) = 2.99, p = 0.0038, Cohen's d = 0.56; Controls (subset): Welch's t(98.7) = 2.18, p = 0.032, Cohen's d = 0.41.

  • iControls (all): Welch's t(85.5) = −3.41, p = 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.62; Controls (subset): Welch's t(106) = −2.21, p = 0.029, Cohen's d = 0.42.