Table 1.

Neuroethics Guiding Principles

  1. Make assessing safety paramount.

  2. Anticipate special issues related to capacity, autonomy, and agency.

  3. Protect the privacy and confidentiality of neural data.

  4. Attend to possible malign uses of neuroscience tools and neurotechnologies.

  5. Use caution when moving neuroscience tools and neurotechnologies into medical or non-medical uses.

  6. Identify and address specific concerns of the public about the brain.

  7. Encourage public education and dialogue.

  8. Behave justly and share the benefits of neuroscience research and resulting technologies.