Table 1.

Demographic and neuropsychological test data for young and older adults

Young adultsOlder adultsp value
N2424
Age (years)23.04 (3.46)68.92 (3.23)
Sex (M/F)12/1212/12
Education15.92 (2.22)17.12 (2.23)0.067
MMSE29.54 (0.59)29.42 (0.93)0.581
CVLT short delay–free13.08 (1.79)10.83 (2.84)0.002
CVLT short delay–cued13.67 (1.81)12.33 (2.32)0.032
CVLT Long delay–free13.54 (2.06)10.71 (2.91)<0.001
CVLT long delay–cued14.12 (1.62)12.33 (2.46)0.005
CVLT recognition–hits15.42 (0.83)15.04 (1.00)0.164
CVLT recognition–false alarms0.46 (0.66)2.67 (2.08)<0.001
Logical memory I30.62 (4.95)26.71 (5.09)0.010
Logical memory II28.12 (5.78)23.25 (5.72)0.005
Digit span total121.04 (4.53)17.58 (2.41)0.002
SDMT65.38 (13.99)47.21 (7.53)<0.001
Trails A (s)21.43 (7.97)30.76 (10.77)0.001
Trails B (s)47.54 (19.53)69.11 (24.64)0.002
F-A-S total48.29 (10.97)45.96 (11.65)0.479
Category fluency (Animals)24.58 (5.67)21.08 (4.82)0.026
WTAR (Raw)41.42 (3.44)43.62 (4.44)0.061
Raven's (List 1)11.08 (0.97)9.50 (2.23)0.003
Visual acuity (logMar)2−0.11 (0.10)0.06 (0.11)<0.001
Speed factor (RC1)3−0.64 (0.67)0.33 (0.75)<0.001
Memory factor (RC2)0.55 (0.73)−0.62 (1.00)<0.001
Crystallized intelligence factor (RC3)0.00 (0.79)0.08 (0.93)0.751
Fluency factor (RC4)0.07 (0.89)−0.21 (0.72)0.257
  • SDs are reported in parentheses. The p values were obtained from Welch's t test comparing young and older adults. MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; M, male; F, female.

  • 1Digit span total equals the sum of forward and backward span.

  • 2Lower logMAR scores indicate better visual acuity.

  • 3Negative factors on the speed factor (RC1) correspond to higher performance on measures of processing speed (e.g., shorter time to complete trails A or B), whereas for other factors higher performance is indicated by higher scores.