Table 2.

Experience changes hippocampal volume

Hippocampal shrinkageChronic stressGianaros et al., 2007a,b, 2008, 2014
Major depressionSheline et al., 2019
PTSDVythilingam et al., 2002; Pitman et al., 2006
Borderline personality disorderDriessen et al., 2000
Cushing's diseaseStarkman et al., 1992, 1999
Dementiade Leon et al., 1988
Type 2 diabetesGold et al., 2007; Yau et al., 2012
Chronic inflammationMarsland et al., 2008
Chronic jet lagCho, 2001
Hippocampal enlargementExerciseErickson et al., 2011
Intense learningDraganski et al., 2006
  • The most extensive information about structural plasticity and damage in the human brain exists for hippocampus, but there is also increasing information about such changes in structure, activity and connectivity in human amygdala and prefrontal cortex. For example, the amygdala becomes more active and undergoes structural changes in mood disorders (Price and Drevets, 2010) and to threat in people of low socioeconomic (SES) standing (Gianaros et al., 2008), while low SES was associated with smaller gray matter volume in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, reduced myelin content and greater systemic preclinical atherosclerosis and IL-6 (Gianaros et al., 2007a,b, 2014). All of these conditions include increased frequency of mood disorders.