Table 2.

Saccadic eye-movement accuracy in pro- and anti-saccade task

PD patientsControlsTwo-sample unpaired t tests
Pro-saccades
    Amplitude (deg)
Velocity (deg/s)
Latency (ms)
10.5 ± 1.0
242 ± 56
268 ± 52
12.0 ± 0.6
298 ± 53
264 ± 60
t(25.3) = 5.17; p < 0.001; d = 1.80a
t(31.1) = 3.00; p = 0.005; d = 1.03a
t(31.9) = 0.20; p = 0.84; d = 0.07
Anti-saccades
    Direction error (%)
Changes of mind (%)
Amplitudeb (deg)
Velocityb (deg/s)
Latency (ms)
10.1 ± 13.4
24.4 ± 17.0
12.0 ± 1.9
247 ± 61
343 ± 76
4.2 ± 6.3
9.4 ± 8.4
11.6 ± 2.8
293 ± 51
314 ± 80
t(20.7) = 1.60; p = 0.12; d = 0.56
t(21.3) = 3.21; p = 0.004; d = 1.12a
t(30.1) = 0.48; p = 0.64; d = 0.16
t(29.3) = 2.35; p = 0.03; d = 0.81a
t(31.8) = 1.06; p = 0.30; d = 0.36
  • aSignificant results.

  • bOnly trials in which participants made a saccade into the correct (uncued) direction are included.